Dandruff! What is it? And tips to treat it

Dandruff! What is it? And tips to treat it

Dandruff is a common condition in which small pieces of dry skin shed from the scalp. It is harmless, but it can be embarrassing, especially so you will notice it in your hair or on your shoulder if you have dark hair or wear dark colors.


  • Peeling of the skin on the scalp, hair, eyebrows, beard or/and mustache.
  • Itchy scalp
  • Dry scalp

Symptoms may increase in severity if you are stressed, as well as in cold, dry climates.


The causes are not clear yet, but several factors may cause the appearance of dandruff, including:

  • Oily skin
  • Not shampooing enough
  • Infection with a type of fungus that feeds on the oils found in the scalp of most adults.
  • Skin dryness
  • Hair care product allergies (contact dermatitis).
  • Some skin diseases, such as psoriasis and eczema

Risk factors

Anyone can get dandruff, but some factors make you more susceptible, such as:

  • Puberty and lasts until middle age.
  • Male hormones.
  • Having a specific disease, such as diseases that affect the nervous system or the immune system.


You can control dandruff with some simple steps such as daily cleansing with a gentle shampoo to reduce the buildup of oils and skin cells, if that does not help, try using a medicated dandruff shampoo. You may need to try more than one shampoo to find the right hair care routine for you. It is also possible that you may need to repeat the treatment or use it for a long time.

Stop using any product if it causes itching, redness, or burning, but if you have an allergic reaction such as a rash or difficulty breathing, seek medical care immediately.

You can use an anti-dandruff shampoo, and there are different types that you can buy at pharmacies.

Dandruff shampoo

It usually contains one of these ingredients:

  • Zinc pyrithione is an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ingredient.
  • Coal tar decreases the rate at which scalp skin cells die and flake off. But, if your hair is light-colored, it may cause discoloration. It might also increase the sensitivity to sunlight.
  • Salicylic acid helps eliminate dandruff.
  • Selenium sulfide is an anti-fungal.
  • Ketoconazole helps eliminate fungi that cause dandruff, such as Nizoral Anti-Dandruff Shampoo & Sebizole

Use and switch between two types of shampoo if you observe results after using one type and then it loses its efficacy.

The pharmacist at Al thiqa pharmacy will help you choose the right type for you.


  • Read and follow the instructions on all shampoos before using them, especially as some products must be left on the scalp for a few minutes before being rinsed, while others must be washed instantly.
  • Use medicated shampoo from one to three times a week to treat dandruff, then reduce the use gradually to once a week or less to prevent the recurrence of dandruff.
  • You will need to consult a doctor if you have used medicated shampoo regularly for several weeks and did not get rid of dandruff completely, doctor may prescribe you a strong shampoo or a lotion of steroids.

Tips to reduce dandruff

  • Follow a healthy diet and make sure your diet contains an adequate amount of zinc and vitamin B.
  • Shampoo your hair, especially if you have an oily scalp.
  • Exposure to the sun, but don’t forget to protect your skin by applying sunscreen.
  • Minimize the use of hair-styling products. Because the build-up on your hair and scalp makes it more greasy.