Allergic rhinitis is a condition caused by allergens such as smoke, dust, fur, and pollen, which are breathed by the nose and induce an overactive immunological reaction. The allergens then activate and alert the antibodies, causing histamine to be released, resulting in nasal inflammation. Furthermore, when someone develops an allergic reaction as a result of histamine release, so the nasal mucosa swells, causing the nose to produce too much mucus, resulting in nasal drip, watery eyes, sneezing, breathing problems, plugged ears, and nasal blockage.
How to diagnose Allergic rhinitis?
Moreover, to check if the person is diagnosed with allergic rhinitis:
- Patient history will be checked by a complication of the allergic rhinitis symptoms and if it is seasonal and specific timing for it.
- Skin prick test by using a skin prick to be exposed to the allergens and the body reaction (a positive or negative reaction) will be seen.
- A blood test will guide us to see if there is an allergic reaction by checking the lab data of the blood and to see if the readings are in their normal range or not.
- Nasal endoscopy is a procedure in which a tiny tube with a light source and video camera at one end (endoscope) is placed up the nose to allow the doctor to view inside the nose.
- A nasal inspiratory flow test, in which a tiny device is put over the mouth and nose to measure the amount of air inhaled via the nose.
Solutions to control the allergic rhinitis:
As a pharmacist, I will counsel and advise the patients to:
- Avoid the allergens by wearing the mask during pollen seasons and in contaminated areas.
- Before beginning a new drug, consult with your doctor. Check to see whether a new allergy medicine may interact with other prescriptions or medical conditions.
- Taking the steroids medicines like mometasone and fluticasone that will be applied directly to nasal mucosa to decrease the inflammation
- Antihistamines like cetirizine, desloratadine and chlorpheniramine stop the histamine actions
- Medicine like montelukast can be used to prevent and control allergic disorders.
- Decongestants such as oxymetazoline, Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and cetirizine with pseudoephedrine can be used for a brief length of time, generally no more than three days, to ease a stuffy nose and sinus congestion, However, if you have an irregular heart rhythm, heart disease, a stroke history, anxiety, a sleep disturbance, high blood pressure, or bladder problems, see your doctor before using a decongestant.
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